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glaceed citron

A few times I’ve been fortunate to visit the places in Provence that candy whole and sliced fruits. Aside from the usual candied orange and lemon peels, they also candy whole cherries, strawberries, pineapple rings, angelica, Clementine slices, and even whole pumpkins and pineapples. And let me tell you—it’s quite a sight seeing all those glistening fruits lined up on their drying racks.

candied fruits candied pears

The first time I paid one of them a visit, I didn’t even need to ask for directions; I just saw the building with all the clouds of steam billowing out of the windows and doors, and went inside.

candied clementines in Provence

At home, I frequently candy citrus zest and even citron pieces, but wanted to try to candy long, beautiful citron wedges, like one finds in shops specializing in candied fruits and places like Confiserie Florian (above).

citron citron

In France you would call these fruits confits, a word which means “preserved.” So when you see duck confit, the duck has been preserved in its fat. Fruit is conserved by using sugar (since I don’t think it would taste all that great preserved in duck fat) and was likely a method developed for storing excessive amounts of fruit.

citrons candied citron

Today you’ll find preserved fruits in French markets and upscale épiceries, most notably around the holidays, and they’re either used in baking, cut into pieces and eaten as is, or used in fancy decorative centerpieces. Italians make a lovely condiment, called Mostarda, which are candied fruits infused with mustard seeds, and the spiced candied fruits are often served with meat dishes.

candying citron candied citron

I bought a fairly good-sized citron, cut it into six lengthwise wedges, removed the tiny bit of pulp, and set about on my project.

It took a couple of days of tending the syrup but really, the syrup did most of the work as I gently simmered it down for twenty minutes a day, until my wedges were shimmering and shiny-smooth. When I was done, I sliced off a bite and it was delicious. Success!

citron glaceed citron

Glazed Citron

Many will likely inquire about the use of corn syrup and if it’s necessary. Corn syrup prevents crystallization so I use it because of the lengthy cooking and reduction of the syrup. I did not try them without using it and you can read more at Why and When to Use (or Not Use) Corn Syrup. Note that this process takes about a week, although it only requires a few minutes of tending each day. Very important to remember is that as you’re cooking the citron in the syrup, especially as the syrup reduces and thickens during the last few days, monitor the citron and turn them wedges gently, to make sure they are getting evenly candied and not burning on the bottom.
  • One 1 pound (450g) citron, organic or unsprayed
  • Pinch of salt
  • 3 1/2 cups (700g) sugar
  • 6 cups (1.5l) water
  • 3 tablespoons (60g) light corn syrup
  • Additional water for blanching the citrons
  • Wash the citron and cut it into six wedges, lengthwise. Use a spoon to scoop away any pulp.
  • Put the citron wedges in a large pot, cover with plenty of water, and bring to a boil with a big pinch of salt. Reduce the heat to a simmer and let the citron pieces cook until they’re completely translucent, about one hour. Drain and rinse the citron slices.
  • In the same pot, heat the sugar, water, and corn syrup until it comes to a boil. Reduce the heat, add the citron slices, and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature.
  • Day 2: Bring the citron slices and the syrup to a low boil and simmer for 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature.
  • Day 3: Bring the citron slices and the syrup to a low boil and simmer for 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature.
  • Day 4: Bring the citron slices and the syrup to a low boil and simmer for 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature.
  • Day 5: Bring the citron slices and the syrup to a low boil and simmer for 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature.
  • Day 6: Bring the syrup and citron slices back to a simmer and cook until the temperature reads 235ºF (112ºC) – watching carefully so they don’t burn or overcook. Remove from heat and let stand overnight, at room temperature. (If the syrup gets very reduced before it reaches that temperature and it looks like the citron will burn, remove it from heat when its close to the temperatures indicated. Depending on the fruit, it may be done a few degrees sooner.)
  • The next day, carefully remove the citrons slices and let them drain on a wire cooling rack for about eight hours.


Will this work with other fruits?

I don’t know but assume it will, yet haven’t tried it. If you do make it with other fruits, please leave your results in the comments. I plan on trying the recipe on other fruits as they come into season.

Do I need to use corn syrup? Can I substitute something else?

Probably not, although it keeps the sugar from crystallizing. You can read more at When to Use (or Not Use) Corn Syrup. As any recipe, if you substitute or remove ingredients, results can vary.

What can I do with the leftover syrup?

You can save it and add it to sparkling water for homemade soda. Also you can make calissions d’Aix, which usually call for candied melon syrup, but use this as a replacement. (You can find recipes online for them.)

How long will these last?

I don’t know exactly but since we’re in the midst of citrus season, I wanted to present the recipe now. It’s a recipe in progress. I’m keeping mine in the refrigerator and will update the post with that information. For the time being, I recommend keeping them in the refrigerator as well and use common sense. They should be fine for at least a few months, but if they show any signs of deterioration (such as mold), discard them.

What can I do with these?

Citron is a wonderful flavor and diced, it makes a wonderful addition to fruit cakes, cookies, spice breads, and other places where candied fruit is requested. Many Italian recipes call for candied fruit. Although it’s glazed, citron isn’t terribly sweet.

Where can I buy candied and glazed fruits, including whole fruits?

The two places I know of in France are Lilamand and Florian. You can check their websites for shipping information. You can also use tips in the post How to Find Foods and Other Items Mentioned on the Site.

Do you have a recipe for Mostarda?

No, unfortunately I don’t. And haven’t seen a reliable one. If you know of where a tried and personally tested recipe exists that uses whole glazed fruits, feel free to leave the link in the comments.

Related Recipes


Candied Citron

Kumquat Marmalade (A Cooking Life)


Clementines Confites (Lucy’s Kitchen Notebook)

Seville Orange Marmalade

Bergamot Orange Custard Cups (Hungry Cravings)

Paddington’s Marmalade (Rosa Jackson)

Blood Orange Sorbet

How to Make Candied Ginger



    • elli

    We do the same with bergamot and oranges, but we let them stand for only 2 days. I don’t know if there is a difference. I’ll try it your way and let you know. As for the time you can preserve them if you keep them in the refridgerator, it’s more than six months.

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Hi Elli: Thanks for adding your tips. When I was at one of the confiseries and asked how long they candied the larger fruits (like pineapples and pumpkins) they said “Two weeks). So I figured that the larger the fruit, the longer the candying time. Are you talking about whole bergamots and oranges, or slices? Because I was thinking of trying those next.

    • Dylan

    I did this a couple of years ago with whole birdseye chillies. Leaving out the corn syrup meant that they turned to crystals; a perfect condiment and beautiful with sweet or savoury dishes.

    • Mack

    Hi David, would you know how to glaze an entire orange like the one hidden in Heston Blumenthal’s Christmas pudding?

    • Marie (a.k.a. Gardenfreshtomatoes)

    I’ve been wanting to make candied fennel – stems, not bulbs – to use up the aromatic seedlings that pop up all over my garden each year. Any ideas on timing that? Should work the same as Angellica, but I’ve never done either… Hints?

    Note to other gardeners – never, EVER let fennel seeds get away from you… You’ll be sorry…

    • adrian

    Hi David, I have an off-topic question about invert sugar. My favorite gelato maker here showed me how he makes his chocolate ice cream and as far as i can remember he added invert sugar. Is that a bad thing? In your post on corn syrup you mention not using it in your ice cream.


    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Mack and Marie: I would try using this same method for other fruits and even the fennel. Let us know how they turn out!

    Dylan: Thanks. For some reason people always ask “Do I need to use it?” And then I wonder why folks think I put it in the recipe in the first place.

    Those chiles sound good; bet they would be nice folded into a corn-based ice cream, or even chocolate.

    Adrian: Which invert sugar are you referring to? There are several.

    For info and tips about adding other ingredients to ice creams, check out my post: Tips on making homemade ice cream softer.

    • Anna

    The photos from Confiserie Florian brings such nice memories of a language week in Cannes with some day trips to St Paul de Vence, Nice and other lovely places such as îles des Lérins! The travel – 17 hours on a stinky bus each way – was a pain, but the stay, including a lot of sunshine, incredible food and so many beautiful moments, was very much worth it. (Sadly I haven’t used French since school and am afraid I might have forgotten most of it over the years.. I’m therefore glad that you often use French words or link to articles in French on your blog so I actually get around at least reading some French – merci!)
    We actually went to Confiserie Florian (I guess that was one of the “culture parts” of the trip), but both our teachers and us pupils somehow doubted that the fruit really was being candied there, it seemed just like a “show” kitchen with pre-prepared fruit…

    • Sandra

    I seem to recall that you have similar recipes in the books or earlier here on the blog for doing this for fruits as well. I could be wrong though.
    Just curious, have you ever done anything with maple syrup? I know that in New England it is getting close to syrup time. Anything like maple trees in France?

    • Lucie

    Whenever I step into a store selling whole candied fruit, I feel like buying one of each, then remind myself that maybe I should only stick to one or two! Well worth the time spent–I go crazy for whole candied ginger (not the kind with the sugar on it)!

    • Hannah

    Hi David, been reading this blog for a while but I had to comment about this: I spent my 3rd year of uni living and working in Nice…and one of those places was Confiserie Florian! Very strange to read about a place I worked; made me go a bit hyper actually. I miss the sunshine, the socca and playing around with dangerous quantities of sugar..

    Anna, it’s actually not a ‘show kitchen’…I candied vast quantites of fruit (mostly clementines) there, under the watchful eyes of visitors like yourself ;) I know what you mean though, it does look a little like a museum piece with the copper dishes and everything.

    I think I’ll spend the rest of the afternoon dreaming about sugary things…

    • Y

    Looks wonderful! We candy carrots at work in a similar way, but instead of simmering the liquid each day, we add increasing amounts of sugar to the syrup and bring that to boil just to dissolve. Do occasionally get some crystallising occurring so might try with a bit of corn syrup next time.

    • Keen@TheGourmetTraveller

    Mmmmm…great recipe, I did not know you had to boil and simmer six times over to candy fruits. Definitely will be trying this one soon…

    Looks delicious, I guess you would be able to substitute with pears and apples (I thought they were pears at first) never tried citron before…have to check it out next time Im at the markets.

    It would be fantastic served with some game meat like quail or duck…

    • Mary Claire

    Sad to say, the only candied citron I’ve ever tried are from those plastic containers they sell at Christmas as an ingredient for fruit cake. Yes, they taste about as good as a gum eraser…no wonder I hate fruit cake.

    What’s the texture like? Are they soft?

    • Jules

    The idea of candied citron intrigues me. I use it in a lebkuchen recipe in the winter, and I don’t like buying the stuff in the plastic containers. Having said that, I certainly do pause at candying an etrog. There is something vaguely sacrilegious about it in my head. Do you think the rabbi would mind?

    • Stephanie

    I’ve made candied ginger with a very similar recipe – might have been from the Joy of Cooking. Also, whole kumquats. Wish I had a nice rindy citron!

    • Seth Mariscal


    I started reading your blog a couple weeks ago and noticed that you seem to really love Citrons since it is by far the most recurring theme in your blog (in the little time I’ve been reading at any rate). I don’t actually remember ever having seen, tasted or heard of them before so was very curious about the appeal. What exactly is so exciting about this particular fruit? Is it the fact (at least from what I see in the blog) that they’re hard to come by?

    I know I’m a little off topic here, and I apologize, but I am curious. I remember reading that you regret not having packed some with you when you were in TX (I believe) and it reminded me of artichokes. Since I have lived in Guatemala for quite a few years now I have been dying to have some artichokes and just cannot find them! I’ve had a couple places recommended to me but all I can find are the canned in vinager abominations that they sell just about everywhere and that a LOT of restaurants actually use in otherwise delicious dishes. I remember getting lured in to one particular place with the promise of an “Artichoke Dip” just to find that awful taste seeping through.

    So this is why I wondered if that same combination of hard to get/delicious to eat is what fuels your passion for Citrons or if they just happen to be the best fruit ever and I should get busy looking for some. Also, great job on the blog, it’s been a real find for me and I really enjoy reading!

    • Tit’

    Hi David,

    I don’t like to eat glazed fruits very much, aside from the fabulous and fondant marron glacé. But I appreciate to prepare them; I like this kind of long and slow process to transform a fresh fruit in gold. Sometimes I’ve the feeling that I have the Midas touch! :)

    For Xmas, I innovated: I cooked a glazed fennel. Yes, a vegetable. From a Michel Bras’ recipe. To savour cut delicately into slices and sprinkled over a tonka bean-flavoured Chantilly cream to serve with a fruits salad. Amazing and very beautiful!

    • Veda

    My mother made the best pear preserves, they were pure silk, and this is how she made them. She did cook them for 10 days, and she would add an additional spoonful of sugar every day before simmering. She said it was a French method she learned in college (small rural school in the piney woods of deep east Texas in the 40’s). I’ve been reading for years and looking for similar methods. I look forward to trying this method. Thanks so much for a good memory of my mom today.
    Wonder what fresh fruit Central Market got in today.

    • Johnny Dish

    I always find that the remaining syrup from candied citruses taste like Fruit Loops.

    Especially orange peel. Tastes exactly like fruit loops.

    I candied some kumquats last year and the syrup is still around. It’s nice to use in winter sorbets instead of simple syrup :)

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Seth: I think citrons are beautiful, and delicious, and on the blog I like to explore things that are a bit unusual from time to time. It’s pretty easy to find things like apple pie on the internet, but I’m often intrigued by curious fruits and coming up with recipes using them.

    Veda and Y: I think adding a bit of sugar each day kind of does the same thing, but that would be interesting to try as well.

    Hannah: I’m sure you miss that socca. So do I! Interesting that you worked at Florian. I was trying to figure out how they candy those whole fruits and kept them so perfect. It’s quite a task, isn’t it?

    • Hannah

    The last time I was in Paris I found a lovely selection of these at Christian Constant…

    • elli

    Hi again. The bergamon we slice it and take out the pulp. The organges we cut them at 4 to 6 pieces depents the size and keep the pulp in. They become so jucy!

    • Kawa

    Ooh, this looks interesting! I have a bunch of home grown oranges and grapefruit sitting at home thanks to a friend of a friend (gotta love living in Florida!) and I might need to experiment. :)

    • Spooner

    I’ve been experimenting with the fruit of the carambola bush. I tried candying some this weekend, and figure I will move onto jelloshots and finally gummi; the natural progression of the confisserier. I’ve never had much respect for starfruit, but somehow this monicker has stuck to me as a nickname. When life gives you lemons, make limoncello. There’s a little more complexity in their flavor than I had expected, not all of it entirely pleasant. David, do you have respect for some fruits and not others? Are you disdainful of any fruits, e.g. pineapple guava?

    • Norine

    To Spooner: Pineapple guava is wonderful fresh – scooped teasponful from each half of fully ripened fruit, but it is hard to consume a whole bush full of it by oneself..

    David: Wonderful description of your being attracted to the billows of steam. How could anyone resist. Re the really tiresome corn syrup issue, I find it especially tiresome because I am truly allergic to all forms of corn – so when I find a substitute for this product, I’ll be sure to share. I have my grandmother’s very old crumbling cookbook which has been intimidating me for years, and I have to think that something over a hundred years old had processess and products that were very effective. She was a wonderful cook. Corn is relatively new to Europe, so I’m becoming obsessed that my answer lies there. What a happy contemplation. In the meantime, I don’t mind a little crystaline sugar.

    • April

    My sister-in-law brought back some candied apricots from Turkmenistan that went through a similar process, although they left them in the syrup, which had been cooked down to a honey-like consistency and color, and I doubt they used corn syrup. We ate them by spreading them on a blini with farmers cheese. It was amazing. Although, according to her, Turkmenistan has particularly good stone fruit.

    • NothingChocolate

    Hmm, a major project but amazing! Thanks for showing!

    • irini

    Hello to you all.
    I just wanted to say that in Greece and Cyprus we are making these, like marmalade, sweets called “Γλυκό του κουταλιού” (or “Spoon sweet”). It is a very similar dessert as the glazed fruits. The main ingredient to make the syrup is sugar and so no need of maple or corn syrup. You can use any kind of fruit or even small vegetables. The fruits though stay with the syrup in a jar and therefore keep their sweetness and glaze-ness every time you serve them (along with yogurt or some cake or even plain). It is easy to make and you can try almost every fruit (I like cherries and watermelon skin)!
    Also, I have tried the glazed strawberries and I found them very interesting, sweet and kinda sour.
    Have a pleasant evening :)

    • Alyssa

    Ah! So great to see this as I just candied the remaining Meyer’s lemons from my tiny backyard tree last night. I sliced them, removed the seeds (but not the pulp), boiled them in saltwater for three minutes, then simmered in water and sugar (1:1.5) for two hours. They take forever to dry but are delicious.

    I once bought candied oranges from a Mexican bakery in San Antonio–they were just sliced in half and candied whole like that. Gorgeous! And delicious, especially sliced thin and served on cheese, or with chocolate. They said it took about seven days to make them, so it sounds like I might be able to use your etrog recipe.

    Just love that stained glass quality candied fruit has.

    • amusette

    Wow, what gorgeous candied fruit at Florian ! Inspiring … would love to try it with some cherries when they’re in season. …So cool that you’re doing the citrons, thanks for showing us the process …had no idea that it took so many days but the finished product looks gorgeous… ! Having found no bergamots today (but did see those knobby citrons a couple of places!), I’ve come home with some ginger to crystallize … love your idea about dipping it in chocolat .. mmm :-)

    • Tom

    I fixed kumquats recently like this and they are amazing with chewy exterior and and soft interior that pops in your mouth. mmmmm….

    • Hannah

    Despite the fact that I despise the taste of candied citrus peel (except for lemon and lime), I can admit that your photos are glorious. And now I wish I didn’t despise the taste of candied citrus peel.

    • Barbara | VinoLuciStyle

    What Hannah said. Exactly.

    I wonder David if you would be interested in this info that is not on topic? I’ve been notifying bloggers that I get feeds from via email about a setting change in Feedburner that would have us see what the subject of your post is in our inbox. Right now the Subject just says the same as the From. I would have sent this to you via a reply to your feed but you have it set for no reply so decided to go this route. I’ve explained how here:

    I’ve seen a huge change in my inbox since so many bloggers have used this info…it is MUCH more compelling for me to read an articile if I see what the subject of posts are!

      • David
      David Lebovitz

      Hi Barbara: Thanks. A few readers have asked about that and I wasn’t sure how to do it. I did toggle the choices, so hopefully that will change them for readers who get the blog posts by e-mail. Merci! – dl

    • Lisa @ Tarte du Jour

    I’m thinking these would be a truly scrumptious embellishment to a tart. I have a Meyer lemon tree in my backyard but the rid is much thinner than your girth-y rind on that citron. Do you think a Meyer lemon work?

    • christina

    My German mother adored candied or glaceed ginger and always bemoaned the fact it was not done properly here in the US. I thought it was pretty tasty too. How would one prepare that? Thanks.. What I miss are the European “pates de fruits”. I loaded up on my last trip and literally hid them from everyone…yum.

    • Lynn in Tucson

    I have a surplus of grapefruit off the tree and some free time this weekend (and corn syrup left over from our annual Valentine’s peppermint marshmallow extravaganza). Away we go!

    • Sally – My Custard Pie

    A very interesting post which has inspired me to tried making something candied….and from all these interesting comments left me wondering where to start. Fruit, chillies, fennel or even carrot! I’ve really learned something today.

    • Phyllis Kirigin

    I use candied citron that I make myself in fruitcake, a much maligned dessert, It’s really delicious so long as you stay away from those green cherries.

    To Norine,
    Regarding your corn allergy, might Lyle’s Golden Syrup (made with sugar cane) be substituted for corn syrup?
    Phyllis aka

    • Sarah Galvin (All Our Fingers in the Pie)

    I have been on a mission to make whole candied fruits since I have seen them in France and Italy. I even bought a refractometer and have been somewhat successful. Nice to see this post.

    • Nikki

    Hi David,

    Do you think I could candy the rind of a durian? Maybe if I removed the thorns? :D

    • Gael

    YES!! I’m following an orange confit recipe by Scott Carsberg now. It’s my second attempt and I don’t think it’s working out so well. In a way it’s the same recipe you have except he simmers on low for 8 hours per day for 3 days. Mark Bittman did the recipe and he says the orange quarters are suppose to get heavy with enough sugar to sink to the bottom but I don’t see that happening. I figured that my concentration in sugar wasn’t high enough so the 3rd time I did it I made sure they were simmering in a thick syrup. I tried one and it was better then the first time but not really as candied as I thought they should be. They been sitting in a jar in the syrup for a day.

    I considered simmering them a 4th time in a very concentrated sugar solution but I thought it might be too much. Thanks to your post though I don’t really think there is such thing as doing it too much.

    One thing I wanted to ask though. The recipe I’m using calls for blanching the orange whole for 30 seconds 2-3 times but you do it for an hour. If you confit a whole fruit is blanching for 30 seconds too short? I also wanted to know why you scoop out the pulp?

    • Mark Craft

    Thanks a lot for explaining this. Now I feel like I’ve got to try it!

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Phyllis and Noreen: Some glucose syrups are made with wheat (or barley), and are available in shops where kosher products are sold. Check the ingredients which should tell you what it’s derived from.

    Gael: I wasn’t aware of that recipe and don’t generally comment on other people’s recipes, but fruit gets blanched 1) To soften it, and 2) To remove any bitterness. 30 seconds is quite short and it’s interesting that the last part of the recipe says to cook the oranges from “1 to 8 hours” so I suspect the recipe writer meant to give folks some leeway. I use a thermometer since that’s the most exact.

    I scoop out the tiny bit of pulp but you could leave it in, I suppose. I think it would just disintegrate in the syrup, though.

    Lisa: I’m sure they would work. I would cut them either into quarters, or thick slices (like around 3/4″, 2cm). The initial cooking time of 1hr would be way too long; just cook them until they’re translucent.

    • Tenina

    You are just the bomb David…this is fantastic…so going to have a pantry full of candied fruit this year! THANX

    • Sonia

    This tradition is also very much alive in Mexico. Most Mexican grocery stores offer a selection of candied fruits and if you ever go to Mexico, seek out a candy shop. You will be amazed by the selection.

    • Diane Shaskin

    Yes, confit of fruit seems to be a recurring theme in Provence. At first I ignored it – it didn’t look that delicious – maybe too much sugar – but over time I grew to love the concept.


    • Jessie

    That looks delicious! It’s on my “to make when there’s fresh food again” list. Incidentally, would you have a recipe for mostarda? I miss it from my stay in Italy!

    • suedoise

    I am all for candied orange slices covered by dark chocolate – les orangettes found at all fine chocolatiers in France.
    And then thank you David for mentioning the Italian wonderfully strong delicacy the MOSTARDA sold in glass jars and great with all meat dishes.
    Strangely difficult to find in Paris even though Paris has plenty of Italian epiceries. And that also goes for that other Italian bliss, the gorgeous rhumfilled dark chocolates each sold festively packed from the Italian city of Cuneo (close to Turin), simply called CUNEESI. One finds CUNEESI in the salumerias all over Italy.

    • Elizabeth

    So glad to see the end result of your holy grail, the citron. They look beautiful. And you’ve inspired me to candy my limon di picas from the terrace. They are a small citrus that Domenico brought back from Chile, and I think they are a cross between a lime and lemon and very small. I wonder if I can candy them whole? Like Kumquats? Or cut in wedges? Any advice?

    I’m then tempted to make mostarda. I know that Judy (divinacucina) made some recently, so perhaps she has a recipe.

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Elizabeth: The only recipes for Mostarda that I’ve seen where more chutney-like condiments, rather than the whole fruits. Which makes me think they begin with already candied fruit.

    Limes can be tough, and sometimes even persistent blanching can not make them soften. So depending on your limes, just make sure they’re softened enough during the blanching process (I’ve found freezing the rinds and such can help soften them.) Depending on their size, I would probably candy them in quarters. Let us know how they turn out.

    suedoise: You can find that condiment at Graineterie du Marché in the center of the March d’Aligre in the 12th. Jose there has got it (and it’s a great store as well for other things..)

    • sandra

    I have seen Citrons in our local markets but was never quite sure what they were! Now I know what to do with them, I can keep an eye open for some. I think the Arabs introduced them into Spain many years ago. From what I gather they have medicinal uses and are also particularly valued by the Jewish community.

    • vanillasugarblog

    this would work w/ blackberries? i hope.

    • Eugene @ FoodandScent

    I still have another Buddha’s hand in the fridge and was planning to candy them tonight but thank heavens I read your blog first. I would have wrecked them thinking they’ll be done in a night.

    • Luzzano II

    After many years in Italy, I have assembled a collection of recipes for mostarda – almost all of them in Italian. Too many to consider here, I suggest consulting Kyle Phillips’ article on the subject.

    Mr. Phillips is also the English translator of that definitive opus on Italian cookery, Pellegrino Artusi’s La scienza in cucina e l’arte di mangiar bene that, itself, contains a recipe for mostarda.

      • David
      David Lebovitz

      That’s really interesting to read and see. Thanks!

    • Cat

    David, your point about softening the fruit by blanching is right on. For years I’ve been using Darina Allen’s directions for candying peel in her Ballymaloe cookbook, wherein she admonishes never to add sugar before making sure the peel is completely tender– as it will not soften otherwise– no matter how long you cook it. I have found this to be true.

    As for leftover syrup, I enjoy il for sweetening tea, and in place of simple syrup for cocktails, where a hint of bitterness is quite nice.

    Thanks for your wonderful posts.

    • Amanda

    David, I’ve seen beautiful stands of these fruits in the markets in Florence and Rome, but never anything so big as a whole pumpkin or pineapple!!! If you ever get a photo, I’d love to see.

    • Amanda

    I went to the Lilamand site and saw the pumpkins and the pineapples. Amazing!

    • Ana Isabel

    Dear David
    I love your text/writing as much as I love your recipes, your gastronomic and cultural discoveries. And your love for Paris, of course – which I deeply share.
    Long ago in Southern France (Provence) I tasted and got addicted to a “friandise sucrée “, Calissons d´Aix, which I try to order whenever a friend goes to France. They are not so easy to be found in Paris – and neither at you site (only one citation from a store that sells them). Do you know any other similar recipe from other countries? Could you please tell if it is possible and how to make them at home? Do you know where you can buy good ones in Paris? (I have only found La Cure Gourmande – 49 avenue de l’Opéra, 75002 Paris). In Provence and specially at Aix-en-Provence they are everywhere, another true French craft. And they are all delicious and made with (certain) “fruit confits”.
    For those willing to know more about Calissons d´Aix, watch (in French); or (in Spanish)…
    Thanks in advance. May you enjoy many Calissons whenever you feel like!
    Ana Isabel

    • Ana Isabel

    Zut! I forgot to add Le Bonbon au Palais (19, rue Monge – 75005 Paris), +33.(0) – – as another Paris address I have where one can find excellent calissons.

      • David
      David Lebovitz

      Ana: Calissons are something you’ll find more of in Provence than in Paris, but Puyricard (a confectioner from Provence) does have a shop in Paris.

    • kepa

    Confiserie Auer in Nice is another nice option. I tried their marron glaces and candied clementines this winter, they were delicious. I think they ship too…

    • Gael

    Thanks for the answer. I understand about commenting on a foreign recipe however candying fruit seems more like a science then cooking so there is essentially only one way to do it.

    • Joy

    That is cool.

    • sarah

    It’s nearing the end of stonefruit season here in new zealand and I’ve bottled up as many peaches, plums and apricots as I have bottles so I may have to try glazing the last of them, they look gorgeous. But to be honest with you, I have a question about a previous post. I know your comment policy specifies that if there’s no space to leave a comment than it means you’re not interested in answering one…but – you knew it was coming right? – I’ve just had a wee baby girl and named her Madeleine, as her sweet little head resembled those scrumptious buttery cakes, a favorite of mine. So of course I’m now devoted to perfecting them at home. I’ve just made your recipe for the lemon glazed madeleines (delicious and lovely humps). I was just wondering; in several places I’ve noticed that ‘traditional’ recipes for madeleines are described as including ground nuts like almonds, but I can’t find such a recipe. Any advice? Thankyou and sorry about sneaking the question in…

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Sarah: I don’t think it’s traditional to add ground almonds to madeleines, but if you want to try it, you could swap out some (probably not more than 25%) of the flour with almond meal.

    Kepa: I’ve been there and it’s a lovely place, and you’re right—their candied fruit is gorgeous!

    • Norine

    Well, in that this is one of my favorite posts I was hoping it’s where I asked the tomato preserve question. But nope, I can’t find it here either. You mentioned that it was in one of your cookbooks and my feable mind is not up to remembering such things, obviously. So, it’s the first of the month and I have some money – which cookbook is your tomato preserve recipe in? Embarassed, mumble, mumble….

    • David
    David Lebovitz

    Norine: You can find that recipe in my book Ready for Dessert.

    • Sara

    Fascinating! I just love the look of those bowls of candied fruit you have posted. It’s like some magical version of fruit, isn’t it?

    I only rarely see things like citron, so rarely that whenever I do I have no idea what to do with it (and am always disappointed, because I know it’s so rare that I SHOULD take advantage of it). This is perfect, and easy to do. Yes, as you say it takes seven days, but it’s more 5 minutes a day for a week–remembering to turn it on and bring to a boil, and (more importantly, at least for me as I project doing it in the evening) turning it OFF!

    • Catalina

    Hello David,

    I have been reading your blog posts for quite some time already and this recipe intrigued me and made try it. So, being in a citrus and some exotic fruit rush, after I’ve prepared sweet orange jam, mango and pineapple jam and lime and lemon jam, I decide to make some glazed Clementines as well. So, for the last 7 days I’ve been following your recipe Increasing the simmering time at 30 minutes per day. I’ve got them out form the syrup last night. They are almost transparent, a little darker as color and heavier (they “consumed” more than 1.5 l of syrup). They are resting on a metal rack, very shiny and sweet smelling :) I will send you some images with the result. Too bad I haven’t any corn syrup… but then again, since I am a baking maniac I am certain that I will make some desserts and use them.

    Thank you very much for all the tips (and nice recipes), they really help.

    • Catalina

    And sorry for the typos :)


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